Application of Principal Component Analysis to Investigation of Acoustic Emission Signals in Aluminum Alloys
In this paper, an acoustic emission study of aluminum alloys subjected to static tension testing is conducted. Some of the test samples have welded joints in the test area. Influence of defects concentrated in a welded joint on acoustic emission signals is studied. The values of deformation stress and degree are used to construct the strain hardening curves and the acoustic emission count rate. Two areas of each strain hardening curve are analyzed. The first area corresponds to the stage of plastic yielding caused by uniform plastic deformation, while the second area corresponds to stages of discontinuous plastic deformation and fracture. The forms of acoustic emission count rates for solid and welded samples are significantly different due to highly defective structures in the welded joints.
Discrete wavelet transform coefficients are used as informative features of an acoustic emission signal. These coefficients are calculated for separate small intervals dividing the strain hardening curve. Principal component analysis (PCA) is utilized to process wavelet decomposition coefficients. The processing results are presented in the form of projections on first principal components planes. The calculations performed for the second area of each loading curve demonstrate that the acoustic emission signals of homogeneous samples and samples containing a welded joint are split into two linearly separated clusters. This indicates that proposed method provides an effective separation of signals produced in materials with different structures.
Obtained results can be used for acoustic-emission testing of deformation behavior and structure of products made with aluminum alloys.
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